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This essay exposes how scientists to become more effective writers. Topics include: types of scientific publications, the format of a scientific manuscript, organization of a paper, and create a research space.
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Scientific writing

Departamento de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Matanza, Buenos Aires. Argentina


This essay exposes how scientists to become more effective writers. Topics include: types of scientific publications, the format of a scientific manuscript, organization of a paper, and create a research space.


Scientific writing is writing for science, is focused around scientific reports, traditionally structured as an abstract, introduction, methods, results, conclusions, and acknowledgments. Publication of research results is the global measure used by all disciplines to gauge a scientist's level of success.

To make international scientific communication more efficient, research articles and other scientific publications should be complete, concise, and clear.

Types of Scientific Publications

  • Research Articles
  • Thesis
  • Books
  • Encyclopedias
  • Organization of a Regular Papers

    The general structure of scientific regular papers (regular or review articles) is Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion (IMR&D).

    Organization of a regular paper

    Title, Authors and Affiliations


    Function: to attract reader’s attention

    Suggestion: rewrite the title in the final version of the paper


    Guidelines to define authorship: All authors must be able to present, discuss, and defend the paper


    Briefly explain why you conducted the study (background), what question(s) you aimed to answer (objectives), how you performed the study (methods), what you found (results: major data, relationships), and your interpretation and main consequences of your findings (conclusions). The abstract must reflect the content of the article, as for most readers it will be the major source of information about your study. You must use keywords within the abstract, to facilitate on-line searching for your article by those who may be interested in your results (many databases include only titles and abstracts). In a research report, the abstract should be informative, including actual results. Only in reviews and other widescope articles, should the abstract be indicative, ie listing the major topics discussed but not giving outcomes (CSE 2014). Do not refer in the abstract to tables or figures, as abstracts are also published separately. References to the literature are also not allowed unless they are absolutely necessary (but then you need to provide detailed information in brackets: author, title, year, etc.). Make sure that all the information given in the abstract also appears in the main body of the article.

    A good, well-written abstract:

    -Remember that many readers only have access to title and abstract.


    Style of the abstract

    Past tense (whenever possible); active voice preferred; concise, complete sentences.

    Use the active voice as much as possible to create direct, clear, and concise sentences, especially when you are writing about the actions of people; and use the passive voice when it is more important to focus on the recipient of an action than on who performed the action, such as when describing an experimental setup.

    Voice describes the relationship between a verb and the subject and object associated with it.

    Structure of the abstract

    For Life Sciences and Engineering:

    For Business, Economics and Accounting Areas


    Purpose - Rapid response is often the cornerstone of success in many industries, especially manufacturing. In the authors’ opinion, organizational structure will also affect the construction of a fast-response supply chain system. The main purpose of this research examines whether different levels of organizational structure have different effects on the relationship between external integration and firm performance.

    Design/methodology/approach - This study applied questionnaires to collect data. This study collected 818 questionnaires from manufacturers in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan to verify our proposed model using structural equation modeling.

    Findings - Results show that response speed perfectly mediates the relationship between external integration and firm performance. Different levels of organizational structure will also affect external integration. Strict organizational structure requires customer integration, while loose organizational structure requires supplier integration to quickly meet customer needs.

    Practical implications - Companies can probably determine whether their organizational structure is higher or lower than that of their competitors. If firms can determine that their organization structure is high or low, they can adopt suitable external integrations to enhance quick response and operational performance.

    Originality/value - In the relationship between supply chain integration and performance, we consider a mediating variable and moderating variable together. Results explain the reason that the relationship between supply chain integration and performance are inconsistent in previous studies. We have addressed external integration in alignment with organizational structure to provide better service and enhance performance by providing empirical evidence.

    Demand-pull vs supply-push strategy: the effects of organizational structure on supply chain integration and response capabilities

    Ai-Hsuan Chiang (Department of International Business, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan)

    Ming-Yuan Huang (Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan)

    Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management ISSN: 1741-038X

    Article publication date: 29 April 2021 Reprints & Permissions

    Issue publication date: 20 October 2021


    International Regional Science Review

    Journal of Financial Economics

    Production Economics 137 (2012) 211–225


    Purpose - This study aims to examine changes in “network logics” that refer to cognitive views socially accepted by actors about the network. These logics provide organizations with templates on how to act in business networks. This study investigates the causes and processes of network logic changes and the phases in the changes.

    Design/methodology/approach - This study relies on content analysis using text data from newspaper articles on global retailers entering the Japanese retail industry. Three different logics were found to describe the actions of the retailers. Two of the logics are related to institutional and strategic logics including network logics, while the third is associated with institutional works that mean actions to create, maintain and disrupt institutions.

    Findings - With regard to transitions in network logics in the Japanese retail industry, the analysis identified four phases: politicization, reflection, establishment and evaluation. Changes in regulative and normative logics were resulted from institutional works of the global retailers into the Japanese market. The findings also include empirical description about how network changes progress through interactions among business actors. Additionally, compared to the regulative and normative logics, it would be difficult to influence the cultural-cognitive logics.

    Originality/value - Business networks often transform with changes in network logics. This study contributes to the literature on industrial network changes by exploring the interactions between macro-level structural states and micro-level events in network logic transitions.


    Hara, Y. (2022), "Changes in industrial network logics: the case of the Japanese retail industry", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 1-13.


    Journal of Business Research

    Soil Use and Management



    This paper explores the relationships between calculative practices and innovative activities. It investigates how calculative practices such as accounting develop knowledge that functions as an engine (MacKenzie, 2006) for innovation. This is an attempt at exploring the role of accounting through its performative effects so that, rather than only describing the world, it also helps to change it. The thesis is that calculative practices are engines involved in luring actors into doing new things by their ability to inspire them to ask new questions and to see new opportunities. As engines, calculative practices trigger a process of mobilisation of knowledge and insight which become part of the innovation. This innovation, in turn, leaves traces that can develop new calculative practices. There is a dynamic relation between calculative practices and the innovation: the innovation drifts because calculative practices are engines helping to bring this drift along. In the case of Telepass, which is a technology that is designed both for managing motorists’ behaviour and accumulating traces about such behaviour, the innovation was able to influence and recreate the engine anew. This story explains how the trajectory of innovation is a string of drifts mobilised by the performativity of calculative practices.

    Accounting as an engine: The performativity of calculative practices and the dynamics of innovation

    Management Accounting Research

    Volume 28, September 2015, Pages 31-49

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether self-managed superannuation fund (SMSF) trustees earn: the equity risk premium or any premium to the riskless rate of interest. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 100 SMSFs, the average annual returns since inception of the funds in the sample are compared with: the average annual equity risk premium since that time and the average yield of Commonwealth Government Securities since that time. Findings – The investigation reveals: the SMSFs in the sample do not earn the equity risk premium and the SMSFs in the sample did not earn a premium to riskless rate of interest. This leads to the conclusion that the SMSFs have borne risk without commensurate reward. Research limitations/implications – The trustees' rationale for making particular investment decisions and the consistency of the portfolio structures with the risk profiles of the trustees are two areas that may be fruitfully explored in future research. Practical implications – For SMSF trustees, a simple portfolio that divides assets between (unmanaged) index funds and risk-free securities on the basis of trustees' risk aversion may generate better results than the existing portfolios. For policy makers, the relatively poor performance of SMSFs implies that the superannuation system as currently structured may not be generating returns that will maximize retirement incomes. Originality/value – The paper provides the first comparison of SMSF returns with the equity risk premium and the risk less rate of interest measured at appropriate horizons.

    Accounting Research Journal, Vol. 22 ,1, 27 – 45, 200

    Finance and Stochastics



    Source: Michael Alley The Craft of Scientific Writing,3rd edition (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

    Aluísio, S.M. (1995). Ferramentas para Auxiliar a Escrita de Artigos Científicos em Inglês como Língua Estrangeira. Tese deDoutorado, IFSC-USP, 228 p. Hill et al., Teaching ESL students to read and write experimental papers, TESOL Quarterly, 16: 333, 1982:

    Centurion et al., J. Nanosc. Nanotech, 2011 in press

    Grzybowski et al., Nature Materials2,241–245 (2003) Yang et al, Langmuir; 2004; 20; 5978 Leeet al.,Nature Biotechnology23, 1517, 2005 (Review)

    Glowacki et al., Nature Chem., 3, 850, 2011

    Evans et al., ACS Nano, In Press Juan et al., Analytical Chem, In Press

    Hoover et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 16901, 2011

    IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2005, p 55

    International Journal of Plasticity 27 (2011) 1165

    International Journal of Electronics, 97, 2010, 1163

    Urselmann, et al., IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15, 2011, 659

    Borges et al., International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 9, 2010, 547.

    Butcher et al., Human–Computer Interaction, 26, 2011,123.




     Information: Contextualization, Gap, Purpose


    Present the research field and show the importance of the main area, make terms processes familiar, and background:

    “Customer satisfaction became part of every business process and crafting new business processes with the help of technology in order to acquire and retain the most profitable customers is gaining interest among traditional manufacturing organizations (Anderson et al., 1994). Customer relationship management (CRM) has become a new branch of learning in business management (Venkatesan and Kumar, 2004; Reinartz and Kumar,2000,2002,2003).” Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing., 28/6 (2013) 468–474

    “Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR), based upon supply chain collaboration standards established by the Voluntary Interindustry Commerce Solutions (VICS) Association, are information systems that enable partnering firms to integrate their inventory planning, forecasting and replenishment processes by sharing information, developing joint forecasts and jointly crafting replenishment plans. Journal of Operations Management 31 (2013) 285–297

    “ Since 1998, when VICS first adopted a set of standards for CPFR information systems, more than 300 companies have engaged in CPFR practices leading to substantial benefits to suppliers, such as Procter and Gamble and Kimberly- Clark and retail chains, such as Wal-Mart and Best Buy (VICS, 2007).” Journal of Operations Management 31 (2013) 285–297


    Web usage mining is a discipline within the field of web mining that concentrates on developing data mining techniques to model and study user web navigation behavior.1,2 In the context of web site personalization, web usage mining techniques have been utilized to take advantage of the data collected from users’ interactions with a web site to study users’ navigation behavior. Understanding user behavior is invaluable in order to deliver tailored content to the user,3 to support the creation of web agents aimed at guiding users within web site,4 or to improve the strategic requirements analysis for web sites.5. Borges et al., International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 9, 2010, 547.


    Open Questions, Restrictions and Limitations

    State the gap or lagoon: What has not been done?

    Problematization: Hypothesis formulation


    Journal of Operations Management


    State the purpose of the paper: Why is this study important? What is presented here?


    Journal of Financial Economics

    Journal of Business and Commerce

    Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management

    Journal of Operations Management

    Create a Research Space

    Structure: Information in the text flows from general to specific, arriving at purpose


    Structure of the information

    Swales Model: Create a Research Space

    The Creating a Research Space [CARS] Model was developed by John Swales based upon his analysis of journal articles representing a variety of discipline-based writing practices. His model attempts to explain and describe the organizational pattern of writing the introduction to scholarly research studies. Following the CARS Model can be useful approach because it can help you to: 1) begin the writing process [getting started is often the most difficult task]; 2) understand the way in which an introduction sets the stage for the rest of your paper; and, 3) assess how the introduction fits within the larger scope of your study.

    The model assumes that writers follow a general organizational pattern in response to two types of challenges [“competitions”] relating to establishing a presence within a particular domain of research: 1) the competition to create a rhetorical space and, 2) the competition to attract readers into that space. The model proposes three actions [Swales calls them “moves”], accompanied by specific steps, that reflect the development of an effective introduction for a research paper. These “moves” and steps can be used as a template for writing the introduction to your own social sciences research papers.

    Move 1: Establishing a Territory [the situation]

    This is generally accomplished in two ways: by demonstrating that a general area of research is important, critical, interesting, problematic, relevant, or otherwise worthy of investigation and by introducing and reviewing key sources of prior research in that area to show where gaps exist or where prior research has been inadequate in addressing the research problem. The steps taken to achieve this would be:

    Language for Establishing a Research Territory

    __________ has been extensively studied...

    Interest in __________ has been growing...

    Recent studies have focused on...

    __________ has become a major issue...

    Move 2: Establishing a Niche [the problem]

    This action refers to making a clear and cogent argument that your particular piece of research is important and possesses value. This can be done by indicating a specific gap in previous research, by challenging a broadly accepted assumption, by raising a question, a hypothesis, or need, or by extending previous knowledge in some way. The steps taken to achieve this would be:

    Language for Establishing a Niche

    Previous studies of __________ have not examined...

    Such studies are unsatisfactory because...

    One question that needs to be asked, however, is...

    Research on __________ has mostly been restricted to _________ so...

    Move 3: Occupying the Niche [the solution]
    The final "move" is to announce the means by which your study will contribute new knowledge or new understanding in contrast to prior research on the topic. This is also where you describe the remaining organizational structure of the paper. The steps taken to achieve this would be:

    Language for Occupying the Niche

    The purpose of this literature review is to...

    This study aims to...

    The evidence collected from this study demonstrates...

    This review outlines/examines...



    The citation process:   

    Emphasis on the study:

      “Previous studies [Ref] have described the influence of grain size on the ultimate properties of the polymer…. ”     “A detailed description of the method employed can be found in ref [ref]....”  

    Emphasis on the Author:

       “A similar strategy has been used by Franco et al [R].... (First author of the paper)”  


    -Contextualization and Gap: Past, present-perfect (continuous) generally used.

    -Purpose: Present or past tense are preferable.

    -Use the active voice as much as possible.

    -Third Person with some use of first person.




    John M. Swales, Genre Analysis: English in Academics and Research Settings,Cambridge University Press, 1990.

    Rubner et al., Langmuir 2004, 20, 1362. PatwariN. et al, IEEESignalProcessing Magazine, 2005, p54

    Oleket al., Nano Lett., Vol. 4, 1889, (2004)

    Lowmanet al., Langmuir 2004, 20, 9791-9795

    Podsiadlo et al., Nano Letters, 2008 , 8, 1762 Yoon et al., International Journal of Plasticity 27 (2011) 1165

    Urselmann, et al., IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15, 2011, 659

    Borges et al., International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 9, 2010, 547.

    Butcher et al., Human–Computer Interaction, 26, 2011,123. King et al., SIAM J. Comput. 40, 1316, 2011


    Results, Discussion, Conclusion

    Possible Structures

    Results and Discussion

    The most important section of a paper

    The section where you prove your initial question, hypothesis, idea, etc. Illustrative Materials (figures, tables, graphs, images), Outcome of Calculations, and TEXT.

    The way you write your achievements makes the whole difference

    Importance of figure Quality, Data Analyses and Statistics

    A Tentative Model:


    - Past tense; 

    - Third Person, preferably; 

    - Use active voice whenever possible. 

    -Subheadings may improve organization and comprehension

    Reach a balance between description of data in the text and in the figure/table legend

    Any reader must understand a Figure/Table without reading the results section.

    Numbering:    Figures and Tables are numbered independently.


    “Figure” can be abbreviated as “Fig.” in the text, but not in the legend. 

    “Table” is not abbreviated.

    Always consult the Journal’s Guide for Authors

    The right place for captions

    Tables: above, left justified.  

    Figures: below, left justified

    Reach a balance between description of data in the text and in the figure/table legend

    Any reader must understand a Figure/Table without reading the results section.



    Legends should convey as much information as possible: The subjects of the experiment, The relationship displayed, Sample sizes and statistical tests if they are not displayed elsewhere.

    Legend ≠ axis label vs axis label (only)


    Do you really need a figure?

    “ The thickness of the film was estimated at 10 nm per bilayer, using AFM….” 

    “Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds)….”

    Note: Always use a space between the value and the unit: 

    “The estimated length was 10 m", or, "the optimum time was 100 min."




    Function: To state the importance of the paper to the development of the field.

    Ideas flowing from Specific to General.

    Pyramidal Structure

    Conclusion structure

    A Suggested Model


    - Past and Present tense; 

    - Third Person, preferably;


    Abrams, E. (2000). Essay Structure. Harvard University, Writing Center. Massachusetts: Writing Center at Harvard University.

    Angulo Marcial , N. (2013). El ensayo: algunos elementos para la reflexión. Innovación Educativa, 13(61), 109-121.

    Benito, M. (2014). Guía práctica: cómo hacer un ensayo científico. Elsevier.

    Brief, D. i. (2019). Data in Brief FAQ. Elsevier.

    (2020). Data article and data publishing. Suiza: Springer.

    Datos científicos. (s.f.). Submission Guidelines. Springer Nature.

    European Association of Science Editors. (2018). Orientações da EASE para autores e tradutores de artigos científicos a serem publicados em inglês . Pau: European Science Editing .

    European Association of Science Editors. (2021). General Writing Tips.

    F1000Research. (2021). Article Guidelines.

    Foote, K. (2021). Data Modeling Trends in 2022.

    Lichtfouse, E. (2013). The Micro-Article to Select Research Results. Marseille.

    Nature. (s.f.). Brief Communications and Communications Arising.

    Ochoa H., E., Zamudio H., N., & Acuña L., K. A. (2009). El ensayo académico: un experiencia de aprendizaje en lenguaje escrito. (ANUIES, Ed.)

    Results in Physics. (2014). New Feature: Microarticles. Results in Physics.

    Wilkinson, M., Dumontier, M., Aalbersberg, I. et al. Los principios rectores de FAIR para la gestión y administración de datos científicos. Datos científicos 3, 160018 (2016).

    Zucolotto , V. (2011). Workshop de Capacitação em Escrita Científica . Escrita Científica . Sao Paulo: Laboratório de Nanomedicina e Nanotoxicologia Instituto de Física de São Carlos, USP .


    Recursos relacionados

    Fraseología científica para un ensayo académico: Fraseología Científica (

    Ingles fácil y gramática sencilla: para el estudiante, el profesional, y el investigador: Ingles fácil y gramática sencilla (

    Diccionario urgente de estilo científico español: Estilo científico español (

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    Aprobado: 10 de enero de 2022 por Ciencia y Técnica Administrativa

    Publicado el 15 de enero de 2022 por: Ciencia y Técnica Administrativa – CyTA

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