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This essay exposes how scientists to become more effective writers. Topics include: types of scientific publications, the format of a scientific manuscript, organization of a paper, and create a research space.
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Scientific writing

Departamento de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Matanza, Buenos Aires. Argentina


This essay exposes how scientists to become more effective writers. Topics include: types of scientific publications, the format of a scientific manuscript, organization of a paper, and create a research space.


Scientific writing is writing for science, is focused around scientific reports, traditionally structured as an abstract, introduction, methods, results, conclusions, and acknowledgments. Publication of research results is the global measure used by all disciplines to gauge a scientist's level of success.

To make international scientific communication more efficient, research articles and other scientific publications should be complete, concise, and clear.

Types of Research Articles

Regular Papers: This is the most common type of journal manuscript used to publish full reports of data from research. It may be called an Original Article, Research Article, Research, or just Article, depending on the journal. The Original Research format is suitable for many different fields and different types of studies. It includes full Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions sections.

Reviews: Review Articles provide a comprehensive summary of research on a certain topic, and a perspective on the state of the field and where it is heading. They are often written by leaders in a particular discipline after invitation from the editors of a journal. Reviews are often widely read (for example, by researchers looking for a full introduction to a field) and highly cited. Reviews commonly cite approximately 100 primary research articles.

Microarticles: Micro articles are concise and focused selections of information that allow users to quickly assess topics and locate the most useful or relevant associated data, information and tools. Research experiments usually give too many results, making writing research article very difficult and unfocussed. The Micro-Article let select the major, novel result - and thus the main message - before writing a full research article. Start by designing a simple figure that conveys the novel message; then fill in result description, interpretation, novelty and benefits; then fill in problems and hypothesis; then design a title conveying the novelty or advance, using both specialists and general words, as the title should be readable by a PhD in a different discipline. Share your Micro-Article with scientists in your field (lab colleagues), scientists outside your field and friends: analyze their questions. Then, once the novel message is clear in your mind, start writing your research article. The Micro-Article can be used for scientific writing workshops.

Microarticle: Eric Lichtfouse

Microarticles are simple and short documents, consisting of a single well-described piece of information, that allow to share the description of a scientific investigation. Microarticles need to contain: title, list of authors (plus affiliations, an email), abstract, keywords, a main text (which should provide the scientific context of the work described) and at least ten reference.

Eric Lichtfouse  (Lichtfouse, 2013) created a microarticle structure that allows the analysis of the research to be presented based on the main result obtained. The microarticles present the information of an investigation, in a concise and focused way on the study problem, which allows to quickly evaluate the most relevant results. This microarticle can be used select one or more novel result before writing research article.


  • Title

  • Global, societal, need

  • Local, specific, scientific problems

  • Hypothesis, knowledge limits

  • Experiments

  • Description of de new result

  • Figure showing the new result

  • Interpretation the result

  • Novelty of the result

  • Local, specific, scientific benefits

  • Global, societal, demand


Structure of an microarticle


Lichtfouse, E.(2013). The Micro-Article to Select Research Results. Scientific Writing for Impact Factor Journals. Retrieved from

Pereira Lobo, M.(2019, 05). Microarticles. Open Journal of Mathematics and Physics, 1. doi:

Results in Physics. (2014). New Feature: Microarticles. Results in Physics. Retrieved from

Short Communications / Letters: These papers communicate brief reports of data from original research that editors believe will be interesting to many researchers, and that will likely stimulate further research in the field. As they are relatively short the format is useful for scientists with results that are time sensitive (for example, those in highly competitive or quickly-changing disciplines). This format often has strict length limits, so some experimental details may not be published until the authors write a full Original Research manuscript. These papers are also sometimes called Brief communications. Posters from conferences may also be summarized as Brief Reports; in many cases, some additional detail, particularly in the methods, description of the results, or discussion/conclusions will be required to make sure that readers (and reviewers) have enough information to understand the description of the work.

Short Communications / Letters: Springer Nature

Brief Communications and Communications Arising

1. Brief Communications

This is a peer-reviewed section of Nature which is less formal than Articles and Letters, aimed at the broadest possible readership.

1.1 Types of contribution

The following types of contribution are published:

  • Short reports of a novel, topical finding of general interest, usually needing only one small figure or table. Contributions of this type are often submitted as Letters . They are not preliminary reports or 'addenda' to published Articles or Letters.  

  • Short, focused reports of results of exceptional topical relevance, needing fast publication.

  • A scientific perspective on a topical issue of international public interest.

1.2 Manuscript preparation and formatting  

  • Contributions should not exceed 500 words, or 700 words if there is no figure or table.

  • Titles must be brief.

  • Contributions should start with a three-sentence paragraph summarizing the message of the article without specialized terminology, for a non-specialist readership.  This should be used as the abstract for submission purposes.

  • Contributions should have a simple message that requires only one small figure or table. 

  • Figures and tables should be sized so that they can be reduced to single-column width (56mm).   At submission, figures should be of good enough quality to be assessed by referees, ideally as JPEGs.  

  • Contributions should not have more than 10 references; reference style is as for Letters and Articles: see

  • Methods should be supplied as Supplementary Information (SI).  It is not permitted to use SI to present additional new data. Movies and other useful illustrative material are allowed.

  • Acknowledgements and joint first authors are not allowed. People or organizations providing essential non-funding assistance can be mentioned briefly in the text or figure legend.

2 Matters Arising

2.1 General information

Nature Research journals recognize the importance of post-publication commentary on published research as necessary to advancing scientific discourse. Formal post-publication commentary on published papers can involve either challenges, clarifications or in some cases, replication of the published work and may, after peer review, be published online as Matters Arising, usually alongside a Reply from the original Nature Communications authors. Matters Arising are exceptionally interesting and timely scientific comments and clarifications on original research papers published in Nature Communications. These comments should ideally be based on knowledge contemporaneous with the original paper, rather than subsequent scientific developments.

2.2 Manuscript preparation and formatting

The main text should be as concise as possible, and ideally not exceed 1,200 words.

Contributions should start with a brief paragraph that summarizes the message of the article without specialized terminology, for a non-specialist readership. This paragraph should be used as the abstract for submission purposes.

Contributions should have a simple message that ideally requires only one or two small figures or tables.

At submission, figures should be of sufficient quality to be assessed by referees, ideally as JPEGs.

As a guideline, contributions may have up to 15 references; reference style is as for Articles.

Scientific Essay (as a didactic genre): a short piece of writing on a particular subject, often expressing personal views. Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. The academic essay allows you to present an opinion on a subject in a succinct, logical and objective way, supported by a scientific background arising from the analysis of a review of the scientific literature.

Scientific Essay: Strategies for Essay writiting
Copyright 2000, Elizabeth Abrams, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

Essay Structure

Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic.

The focus of such an essay predicts its structure. It dictates the information readers need to know and the order in which they need to receive it. Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main claim you're making. Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types (e.g., comparative analysis), there are no set formula.

Answering Questions: The Parts of an Essay

A typical essay contains many different kinds of information, often located in specialized parts or sections. Even short essays perform several different operations: introducing the argument, analyzing data, raising counterarguments, concluding. Introductions and conclusions have fixed places, but other parts don't. Counterargument, for example, may appear within a paragraph, as a free-standing section, as part of the beginning, or before the ending. Background material (historical context or biographical information, a summary of relevant theory or criticism, the definition of a key term) often appears at the beginning of the essay, between the introduction and the first analytical section, but might also appear near the beginning of the specific section to which it's relevant.

It's helpful to think of the different essay sections as answering a series of questions your reader might ask when encountering your thesis. (Readers should have questions. If they don't, your thesis is most likely simply an observation of fact, not an arguable claim.)

"What?"  The first question to anticipate from a reader is "what": What evidence shows that the phenomenon described by your thesis is true? To answer the question you must examine your evidence, thus demonstrating the truth of your claim. This "what" or "demonstration" section comes early in the essay, often directly after the introduction. Since you're essentially reporting what you've observed, this is the part you might have most to say about when you first start writing. But be forewarned: it shouldn't take up much more than a third (often much less) of your finished essay. If it does, the essay will lack balance and may read as mere summary or description.

"How?"  A reader will also want to know whether the claims of the thesis are true in all cases. The corresponding question is "how": How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of a counterargument? How does the introduction of new material—a new way of looking at the evidence, another set of sources—affect the claims you're making? Typically, an essay will include at least one "how" section. (Call it "complication" since you're responding to a reader's complicating questions.) This section usually comes after the "what," but keep in mind that an essay may complicate its argument several times depending on its length, and that counterargument alone may appear just about anywhere in an essay.

"Why?"  Your reader will also want to know what's at stake in your claim: Why does your interpretation of a phenomenon matter to anyone beside you? This question addresses the larger implications of your thesis. It allows your readers to understand your essay within a larger context. In answering "why", your essay explains its own significance. Although you might gesture at this question in your introduction, the fullest answer to it properly belongs at your essay's end. If you leave it out, your readers will experience your essay as unfinished—or, worse, as pointless or insular.

Mapping an Essay

Structuring your essay according to a reader's logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. The easiest way to do this is to map the essay's ideas via a written narrative. Such an account will give you a preliminary record of your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at every turn of the reader's needs in understanding your idea.

Essay maps ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counterargument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make. Try making your map like this:

  • State your thesis in a sentence or two, then write another sentence saying why it's important to make that claim. Indicate, in other words, what a reader might learn by exploring the claim with you. Here you're anticipating your answer to the "why" question that you'll eventually flesh out in your conclusion.

  • Begin your next sentence like this: "To be convinced by my claim, the first thing a reader needs to know is . . ." Then say why that's the first thing a reader needs to know, and name one or two items of evidence you think will make the case. This will start you off on answering the "what" question. (Alternately, you may find that the first thing your reader needs to know is some background information.)

  • Begin each of the following sentences like this: "The next thing my reader needs to know is . . ."  Once again, say why, and name some evidence. Continue until you've mapped out your essay.

Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why. It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas.

Signs of Trouble

A common structural flaw in college essays is the "walk-through" (also labeled "summary" or "description"). Walk-through essays follow the structure of their sources rather than establishing their own. Such essays generally have a descriptive thesis rather than an argumentative one. Be wary of paragraph openers that lead off with "time" words ("first," "next," "after," "then") or "listing" words ("also," "another," "in addition"). Although they don't always signal trouble, these paragraph openers often indicate that an essay's thesis and structure need work: they suggest that the essay simply reproduces the chronology of the source text (in the case of time words: first this happens, then that, and afterwards another thing . . . ) or simply lists example after example ("In addition, the use of color indicates another way that the painting differentiates between good and evil").

Data article: Data articles are peer-reviewed, citable papers that describe research data. Data articles present and describe research data, enhancing their visibility and potential for reuse, but without conclusions or analyses. This allows authors to get published, citable credit for their work in generating research data. Publishing a data article does not prevent an author from publishing research papers using that data at a later date. Research data include data produced by the authors (“primary data”) and data from other sources that are analysed by authors in their study (“secondary data”). Research data include any recorded factual material that are used to produce the results in digital and non-digital form. This includes tabular data, code, images, audio, documents, video, maps, raw or processed data.

Types of the Data Articles: scope, and format

Types of the Data Articles: scope, and format


  • Scope: Original reports on systems or techniques that clearly advance data sharing and reuse to support reproducible research  

  • Format outline

    • Abstract

    • Introduction

    • Methods

    • Results

    • Discussion

    • Data Availability

    • Code Availability

    • References

Data Descriptor

  • Scope: Detailed descriptions of research datasets, which focus on helping others reuse data, rather than testing hypotheses or presenting new interpretations

  • Format outline

    • Abstract

    • Background & Summary

    • Methods

    • Data Records

    • Technical Validation

    • Usage Notes (optional)

    • Code Availability

    • References


  • Scope: A new analysis or meta-analysis of existing data, which highlights innovative examples of data reuse or presents compelling new findings

  • Format outline

    • Abstract

    • Introduction

    • Methods

    • Results

    • Discussion

    • Data Availability

    • Code Availability

    • References


  • Scope: Flexible format used to publish brief opinions, commentaries and announcements of interest to a broad section of the journal’s readership.

  • Format outline

    • Comment

    • References (max. 25)

General structure of the data article


Describes the dataset and includes the word ‘data’ or ‘dataset’. The title should be concise and specific, clearly reflecting the content of the article.

Should focus on the specific data referenced in your paper. Titles may not exceed 110 characters, including whitespaces. They should avoid the use of acronyms, abbreviations, and unnecessary punctuation. Colons and parentheses are not permitted.


Includes authors’ full names. List all authors who played a significant role in developing the points presented in the article.

                Affiliations: Provide full affiliation information (Department, University, City, Country).

                e-mail: Institutional email address preferred.


The abstract should describe the data collection process, the analysis performed, the data, and their reuse potential. A data article should only describe your data. It should not provide conclusions or interpretive insights, and should not include references. Tip: Do not use words such as ‘study’, ‘results’ and ‘conclusions’. Minimum length 100 words / maximum length 500 words. 


Include 4-8 keywords (or phrases) to help others discover your article online. Avoid repeating words used in your title.


The Introduction should provide an overview of the study design, the experiment(s) performed and any data generated, including any background in the context of previous work and the literature. This section should also briefly outline the broader goals that motivated collection of the data, as well as their potential reuse value. Authors are also encouraged to include a figure that provides a schematic overview of the study and experimental design.


The Methods section should include a detailed description of any steps or procedures used in producing the data, including full descriptions of the experimental design and any computational processing.

Data Records

The Data Records section should be used to explain each data record associated with this work, including details of the repository where this information is stored, in order to provide an overview of the data files and their formats.

Technical Validation

The Technical Validation section should present any experiments or analyses that are needed to support the technical quality of the data set. This section may be supported by figures and tables, as needed. This is a required section; authors must provide information to justify the reliability of their data.

Data Set Value

This section is optional and should be used to discuss the value and significance of the data set. Authors must include either this section or the Usage Notes section described below. This section should explain the novelty of the data set in terms of data acquisition, data processing or quality control by making comparisons with related data sets. It should also include a description of actual and potential uses for the data set.

Usage Notes

This section is optional and should provide brief instructions to assist other researchers who want to reuse the data. Authors must choose either this section or the Data Set Value section described above. This section may include a discussion of software packages that are suitable for analysing the data files, suggested downstream processing steps, or tips for integrating or comparing the data records with other data sets.


The research presented in this paper was funded by xxxx. The authors are grateful to xxxx for xxxx.

Supporting information

The following supporting information is available as part of the online article:

  • Video S2. xxxx.

  • Figure S1. xxxx.

  • Table S1. xxxx.

  • Appendix S1. xxxx.

Data Availability Statement

Authors are required to provide a Data Availability Statement, including details of the data set(s) referred to in the paper. This should contain at minimum the data set file name, data repository name and the data set DOI or other unique identifier. Please refer to our Data Availability Templates page for examples.


References are limited to a maximum of 20 and excessive self-citation is not allowed. Please cite any article you have referred to while collecting or analyzing data and preparing your manuscript. If your data article supports an original research article which is published or in press, please cite the associated article here; ideally, it should be the first citation.


Data in Brief. (2019). Data in Brief FAQ. Retrieved from

Dataversity. (2021). Data Modeling Trends in 2022 . Retrieved from

F1000Research. (2022). Data Note: Submission template.

Kawashita, I., Baptista, A. A., & Soares, D. (2022, 1). Open Government Data Use in the Brazilian States and Federal District Public Administrations. Data, 7(1). Retrieved from

Nature Research Journals. (2020). Scientific Data: Submission Guidelines. (M. P. Limited, Ed.) Retrieved from Macmillan Publishers Limited:

Scientific Data. (n.d.). Scientific Data (Sci Data). Retrieved from

Springer. (2020). Artículo de datos y publicación de datos. Retrieved from

Tian, X., Liu, Y., & Xu, M. (2021, 09 30). Chinese environmentally extended input-output database for 2017 and 2018. Scientific Data. Retrieved from

Organization of a Regular Papers

The general structure of scientific regular papers (regular or review articles) is Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion (IMR&D).

Organization of a regular paper

Title, Authors and Affiliations


Function: to attract reader’s attention

Suggestion: rewrite the title in the final version of the paper


Guidelines to define authorship: All authors must be able to present, discuss, and defend the paper


Briefly explain why you conducted the study (background), what question(s) you aimed to answer (objectives), how you performed the study (methods), what you found (results: major data, relationships), and your interpretation and main consequences of your findings (conclusions). The abstract must reflect the content of the article, as for most readers it will be the major source of information about your study. You must use keywords within the abstract, to facilitate on-line searching for your article by those who may be interested in your results (many databases include only titles and abstracts). In a research report, the abstract should be informative, including actual results. Only in reviews and other widescope articles, should the abstract be indicative, ie listing the major topics discussed but not giving outcomes (CSE 2014). Do not refer in the abstract to tables or figures, as abstracts are also published separately. References to the literature are also not allowed unless they are absolutely necessary (but then you need to provide detailed information in brackets: author, title, year, etc.). Make sure that all the information given in the abstract also appears in the main body of the article.

A good, well-written abstract:

-Remember that many readers only have access to title and abstract.


Style of the abstract

Past tense (whenever possible); active voice preferred; concise, complete sentences.

Use the active voice as much as possible to create direct, clear, and concise sentences, especially when you are writing about the actions of people; and use the passive voice when it is more important to focus on the recipient of an action than on who performed the action, such as when describing an experimental setup.

Voice describes the relationship between a verb and the subject and object associated with it.

Structure of the abstract

For Life Sciences and Engineering:

For Business, Economics and Accounting Areas


Purpose - Rapid response is often the cornerstone of success in many industries, especially manufacturing. In the authors’ opinion, organizational structure will also affect the construction of a fast-response supply chain system. The main purpose of this research examines whether different levels of organizational structure have different effects on the relationship between external integration and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach - This study applied questionnaires to collect data. This study collected 818 questionnaires from manufacturers in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan to verify our proposed model using structural equation modeling.

Findings - Results show that response speed perfectly mediates the relationship between external integration and firm performance. Different levels of organizational structure will also affect external integration. Strict organizational structure requires customer integration, while loose organizational structure requires supplier integration to quickly meet customer needs.

Practical implications - Companies can probably determine whether their organizational structure is higher or lower than that of their competitors. If firms can determine that their organization structure is high or low, they can adopt suitable external integrations to enhance quick response and operational performance.

Originality/value - In the relationship between supply chain integration and performance, we consider a mediating variable and moderating variable together. Results explain the reason that the relationship between supply chain integration and performance are inconsistent in previous studies. We have addressed external integration in alignment with organizational structure to provide better service and enhance performance by providing empirical evidence.

Demand-pull vs supply-push strategy: the effects of organizational structure on supply chain integration and response capabilities

Ai-Hsuan Chiang (Department of International Business, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan)

Ming-Yuan Huang (Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan)

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management ISSN: 1741-038X

Article publication date: 29 April 2021 Reprints & Permissions

Issue publication date: 20 October 2021


International Regional Science Review

Journal of Financial Economics

Production Economics 137 (2012) 211–225


Purpose - This study aims to examine changes in “network logics” that refer to cognitive views socially accepted by actors about the network. These logics provide organizations with templates on how to act in business networks. This study investigates the causes and processes of network logic changes and the phases in the changes.

Design/methodology/approach - This study relies on content analysis using text data from newspaper articles on global retailers entering the Japanese retail industry. Three different logics were found to describe the actions of the retailers. Two of the logics are related to institutional and strategic logics including network logics, while the third is associated with institutional works that mean actions to create, maintain and disrupt institutions.

Findings - With regard to transitions in network logics in the Japanese retail industry, the analysis identified four phases: politicization, reflection, establishment and evaluation. Changes in regulative and normative logics were resulted from institutional works of the global retailers into the Japanese market. The findings also include empirical description about how network changes progress through interactions among business actors. Additionally, compared to the regulative and normative logics, it would be difficult to influence the cultural-cognitive logics.

Originality/value - Business networks often transform with changes in network logics. This study contributes to the literature on industrial network changes by exploring the interactions between macro-level structural states and micro-level events in network logic transitions.


Hara, Y. (2022), "Changes in industrial network logics: the case of the Japanese retail industry", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 1-13.


Journal of Business Research

Soil Use and Management



This paper explores the relationships between calculative practices and innovative activities. It investigates how calculative practices such as accounting develop knowledge that functions as an engine (MacKenzie, 2006) for innovation. This is an attempt at exploring the role of accounting through its performative effects so that, rather than only describing the world, it also helps to change it. The thesis is that calculative practices are engines involved in luring actors into doing new things by their ability to inspire them to ask new questions and to see new opportunities. As engines, calculative practices trigger a process of mobilisation of knowledge and insight which become part of the innovation. This innovation, in turn, leaves traces that can develop new calculative practices. There is a dynamic relation between calculative practices and the innovation: the innovation drifts because calculative practices are engines helping to bring this drift along. In the case of Telepass, which is a technology that is designed both for managing motorists’ behaviour and accumulating traces about such behaviour, the innovation was able to influence and recreate the engine anew. This story explains how the trajectory of innovation is a string of drifts mobilised by the performativity of calculative practices.

Accounting as an engine: The performativity of calculative practices and the dynamics of innovation

Management Accounting Research

Volume 28, September 2015, Pages 31-49

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether self-managed superannuation fund (SMSF) trustees earn: the equity risk premium or any premium to the riskless rate of interest. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 100 SMSFs, the average annual returns since inception of the funds in the sample are compared with: the average annual equity risk premium since that time and the average yield of Commonwealth Government Securities since that time. Findings – The investigation reveals: the SMSFs in the sample do not earn the equity risk premium and the SMSFs in the sample did not earn a premium to riskless rate of interest. This leads to the conclusion that the SMSFs have borne risk without commensurate reward. Research limitations/implications – The trustees' rationale for making particular investment decisions and the consistency of the portfolio structures with the risk profiles of the trustees are two areas that may be fruitfully explored in future research. Practical implications – For SMSF trustees, a simple portfolio that divides assets between (unmanaged) index funds and risk-free securities on the basis of trustees' risk aversion may generate better results than the existing portfolios. For policy makers, the relatively poor performance of SMSFs implies that the superannuation system as currently structured may not be generating returns that will maximize retirement incomes. Originality/value – The paper provides the first comparison of SMSF returns with the equity risk premium and the risk less rate of interest measured at appropriate horizons.

Accounting Research Journal, Vol. 22 ,1, 27 – 45, 200

Finance and Stochastics



Source: Michael Alley The Craft of Scientific Writing,3rd edition (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

Aluísio, S.M. (1995). Ferramentas para Auxiliar a Escrita de Artigos Científicos em Inglês como Língua Estrangeira. Tese deDoutorado, IFSC-USP, 228 p. Hill et al., Teaching ESL students to read and write experimental papers, TESOL Quarterly, 16: 333, 1982:

Centurion et al., J. Nanosc. Nanotech, 2011 in press

Grzybowski et al., Nature Materials2,241–245 (2003) Yang et al, Langmuir; 2004; 20; 5978 Leeet al.,Nature Biotechnology23, 1517, 2005 (Review)

Glowacki et al., Nature Chem., 3, 850, 2011

Evans et al., ACS Nano, In Press Juan et al., Analytical Chem, In Press

Hoover et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 16901, 2011

IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2005, p 55

International Journal of Plasticity 27 (2011) 1165

International Journal of Electronics, 97, 2010, 1163

Urselmann, et al., IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15, 2011, 659

Borges et al., International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 9, 2010, 547.

Butcher et al., Human–Computer Interaction, 26, 2011,123.




 Information: Contextualization, Gap, Purpose


Present the research field and show the importance of the main area, make terms processes familiar, and background:

“Customer satisfaction became part of every business process and crafting new business processes with the help of technology in order to acquire and retain the most profitable customers is gaining interest among traditional manufacturing organizations (Anderson et al., 1994). Customer relationship management (CRM) has become a new branch of learning in business management (Venkatesan and Kumar, 2004; Reinartz and Kumar,2000,2002,2003).” Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing., 28/6 (2013) 468–474

“Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR), based upon supply chain collaboration standards established by the Voluntary Interindustry Commerce Solutions (VICS) Association, are information systems that enable partnering firms to integrate their inventory planning, forecasting and replenishment processes by sharing information, developing joint forecasts and jointly crafting replenishment plans. Journal of Operations Management 31 (2013) 285–297

“ Since 1998, when VICS first adopted a set of standards for CPFR information systems, more than 300 companies have engaged in CPFR practices leading to substantial benefits to suppliers, such as Procter and Gamble and Kimberly- Clark and retail chains, such as Wal-Mart and Best Buy (VICS, 2007).” Journal of Operations Management 31 (2013) 285–297


Web usage mining is a discipline within the field of web mining that concentrates on developing data mining techniques to model and study user web navigation behavior.1,2 In the context of web site personalization, web usage mining techniques have been utilized to take advantage of the data collected from users’ interactions with a web site to study users’ navigation behavior. Understanding user behavior is invaluable in order to deliver tailored content to the user,3 to support the creation of web agents aimed at guiding users within web site,4 or to improve the strategic requirements analysis for web sites.5. Borges et al., International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 9, 2010, 547.


Open Questions, Restrictions and Limitations

State the gap or lagoon: What has not been done?

Problematization: Hypothesis formulation


Journal of Operations Management


State the purpose of the paper: Why is this study important? What is presented here?


Journal of Financial Economics

Journal of Business and Commerce

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management

Journal of Operations Management

Create a Research Space

Structure: Information in the text flows from general to specific, arriving at purpose


Structure of the information

Swales Model: Create a Research Space

The Creating a Research Space [CARS] Model was developed by John Swales based upon his analysis of journal articles representing a variety of discipline-based writing practices. His model attempts to explain and describe the organizational pattern of writing the introduction to scholarly research studies. Following the CARS Model can be useful approach because it can help you to: 1) begin the writing process [getting started is often the most difficult task]; 2) understand the way in which an introduction sets the stage for the rest of your paper; and, 3) assess how the introduction fits within the larger scope of your study.

The model assumes that writers follow a general organizational pattern in response to two types of challenges [“competitions”] relating to establishing a presence within a particular domain of research: 1) the competition to create a rhetorical space and, 2) the competition to attract readers into that space. The model proposes three actions [Swales calls them “moves”], accompanied by specific steps, that reflect the development of an effective introduction for a research paper. These “moves” and steps can be used as a template for writing the introduction to your own social sciences research papers.

Move 1: Establishing a Territory [the situation]

This is generally accomplished in two ways: by demonstrating that a general area of research is important, critical, interesting, problematic, relevant, or otherwise worthy of investigation and by introducing and reviewing key sources of prior research in that area to show where gaps exist or where prior research has been inadequate in addressing the research problem. The steps taken to achieve this would be:

Language for Establishing a Research Territory

__________ has been extensively studied...

Interest in __________ has been growing...

Recent studies have focused on...

__________ has become a major issue...

Move 2: Establishing a Niche [the problem]

This action refers to making a clear and cogent argument that your particular piece of research is important and possesses value. This can be done by indicating a specific gap in previous research, by challenging a broadly accepted assumption, by raising a question, a hypothesis, or need, or by extending previous knowledge in some way. The steps taken to achieve this would be:

Language for Establishing a Niche

Previous studies of __________ have not examined...

Such studies are unsatisfactory because...

One question that needs to be asked, however, is...

Research on __________ has mostly been restricted to _________ so...

Move 3: Occupying the Niche [the solution]
The final "move" is to announce the means by which your study will contribute new knowledge or new understanding in contrast to prior research on the topic. This is also where you describe the remaining organizational structure of the paper. The steps taken to achieve this would be:

Language for Occupying the Niche

The purpose of this literature review is to...

This study aims to...

The evidence collected from this study demonstrates...

This review outlines/examines...



The citation process:   

Emphasis on the study:

  “Previous studies [Ref] have described the influence of grain size on the ultimate properties of the polymer…. ”     “A detailed description of the method employed can be found in ref [ref]....”  

Emphasis on the Author:

   “A similar strategy has been used by Franco et al [R].... (First author of the paper)”  


-Contextualization and Gap: Past, present-perfect (continuous) generally used.

-Purpose: Present or past tense are preferable.

-Use the active voice as much as possible.

-Third Person with some use of first person.




John M. Swales, Genre Analysis: English in Academics and Research Settings,Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Rubner et al., Langmuir 2004, 20, 1362. PatwariN. et al, IEEESignalProcessing Magazine, 2005, p54

Oleket al., Nano Lett., Vol. 4, 1889, (2004)

Lowmanet al., Langmuir 2004, 20, 9791-9795

Podsiadlo et al., Nano Letters, 2008 , 8, 1762 Yoon et al., International Journal of Plasticity 27 (2011) 1165

Urselmann, et al., IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15, 2011, 659

Borges et al., International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 9, 2010, 547.

Butcher et al., Human–Computer Interaction, 26, 2011,123. King et al., SIAM J. Comput. 40, 1316, 2011


Results, Discussion, Conclusion

Possible Structures

Results and Discussion

The most important section of a paper

The section where you prove your initial question, hypothesis, idea, etc. Illustrative Materials (figures, tables, graphs, images), Outcome of Calculations, and TEXT.

The way you write your achievements makes the whole difference

Importance of figure Quality, Data Analyses and Statistics

A Tentative Model:


- Past tense; 

- Third Person, preferably; 

- Use active voice whenever possible. 

-Subheadings may improve organization and comprehension

Reach a balance between description of data in the text and in the figure/table legend

Any reader must understand a Figure/Table without reading the results section.

Numbering:    Figures and Tables are numbered independently.


“Figure” can be abbreviated as “Fig.” in the text, but not in the legend. 

“Table” is not abbreviated.

Always consult the Journal’s Guide for Authors

The right place for captions

Tables: above, left justified.  

Figures: below, left justified

Reach a balance between description of data in the text and in the figure/table legend

Any reader must understand a Figure/Table without reading the results section.



Legends should convey as much information as possible: The subjects of the experiment, The relationship displayed, Sample sizes and statistical tests if they are not displayed elsewhere.

Legend ≠ axis label vs axis label (only)


Do you really need a figure?

“ The thickness of the film was estimated at 10 nm per bilayer, using AFM….” 

“Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds)….”

Note: Always use a space between the value and the unit: 

“The estimated length was 10 m", or, "the optimum time was 100 min."




Function: To state the importance of the paper to the development of the field.

Ideas flowing from Specific to General.

Pyramidal Structure

Conclusion structure

A Suggested Model


- Past and Present tense; 

- Third Person, preferably;


Abrams, E. (2000). Essay Structure. Harvard University, Writing Center. Massachusetts: Writing Center at Harvard University.

Angulo Marcial , N. (2013). El ensayo: algunos elementos para la reflexión. Innovación Educativa, 13(61), 109-121.

Benito, M. (2014). Guía práctica: cómo hacer un ensayo científico. Elsevier.

Brief, D. i. (2019). Data in Brief FAQ. Elsevier.

(2020). Data article and data publishing. Suiza: Springer.

Datos científicos. (s.f.). Submission Guidelines. Springer Nature.

European Association of Science Editors. (2018). Orientações da EASE para autores e tradutores de artigos científicos a serem publicados em inglês . Pau: European Science Editing .

European Association of Science Editors. (2021). General Writing Tips.

F1000Research. (2021). Article Guidelines.

Foote, K. (2021). Data Modeling Trends in 2022.

Lichtfouse, E. (2013). The Micro-Article to Select Research Results. Marseille.

Nature. (s.f.). Brief Communications and Communications Arising.

Ochoa H., E., Zamudio H., N., & Acuña L., K. A. (2009). El ensayo académico: un experiencia de aprendizaje en lenguaje escrito. (ANUIES, Ed.)

Results in Physics. (2014). New Feature: Microarticles. Results in Physics.

Wilkinson, M., Dumontier, M., Aalbersberg, I. et al. Los principios rectores de FAIR para la gestión y administración de datos científicos. Datos científicos 3, 160018 (2016).

Zucolotto , V. (2011). Workshop de Capacitação em Escrita Científica . Escrita Científica . Sao Paulo: Laboratório de Nanomedicina e Nanotoxicologia Instituto de Física de São Carlos, USP .


Recursos relacionados

Fraseología científica para un ensayo académico: Fraseología Científica (

Ingles fácil y gramática sencilla: para el estudiante, el profesional, y el investigador: Ingles fácil y gramática sencilla (

Diccionario urgente de estilo científico español: Estilo científico español (

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Aprobado: 10 de enero de 2022 por Ciencia y Técnica Administrativa

Publicado el 15 de enero de 2022 por: Ciencia y Técnica Administrativa – CyTA

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